Chickenpoxes are a viral (varicella-zoster virus) infectious disease in the childhood which is caused by droplet infection and far common. Vesicles filled fluid which then become encrusted are the characteristic feature of this illness. Chickenpoxes usually go harmlessly. Chickenpoxes get dangerous for newborn childs and people with a weakened immune system. The danger is at every fallen ill with chicken-pox already in the course of his life to fall ill with shingles at a reactivation of the infection. Only since the summer 2004 a vaccination has been recommended for all children in the 2nd year of life.
Due to its high infection ability (more than 90% of the infected fall ill and point the specific symptoms) most adults have gone through the illness already in the childhood. 90 to 95% have antibodies against the virus. The age peak lies between the 3rd and 10th years of life. The virus is worldwide common.
The pathogene of the chickenpoxes is the varizella-zoster virus. It is part of the family of the herpes viruses (Herpesviridae). This virus family has the ability to survive after a first infection into nerve cells silently. The viruses are, however, viable. In the case of the varizella-zoster virus a reactivation can be carried out after years or decades. A shingles is then the consequence.
The prolonged gestation happens by drips and contact infection (vesicles burst open). However, the virus can about the air (aerogenic), virtually with the wind (name)!, will transfer also over several meters. The shoot, however, isn't over-viable outside the body for a long time. A prolonged gestation over objects is therefore quite improbable.
As a rule, the illness leaves a lifelong immunity. Second infections also have appeared, however, with people who fell ill very early or have gone through the first infection only weakly.
The incubation period, that is the period of time between infection and the appearance of the first symptoms is two to three weeks.
The patients are regarded as infectious after appearance of the exanthema already two days before appearance of the typical exanthema until at least 5 days or as long as solid it is available for crusts.
The clinical picture appears as follows:
The illness starts with a light disease feeling. The children are often worn-out and they have occasionally whiningly fevers. An exanthema itching strongly which shows characteristic stadia then appears. Red spots can be seen, these first approximately lens big, waterily filled bladders change about nodules within less hours. After few days the vesicles burst and become encrusted. The eruption starts at the trunk and spreads from there on the head and the extremities. Concerned therefore also the hairy scalp, the mouth and nasal mucosa as well as the genitalia, is the complete skin and mucosa. Mostly, only hands and foots aren't affected. New chickenpoxes follow in episodes for one to two weeks. On an average 250 chickenpoxes can be seen in the four stadia (spots, nodule, vesicle and crusts) besides each other on the body of the children. One talks about a so-called starry sky model. Up to 40 º carbon, others don't have a temperature some children at all. After 1 to 3 weeks the yellowish brownish crusts fall.
Have their diagnosis physician protected of yours. (Because the beginning eruption can look also like gnat bite. You consult the physician if these light vesicles and fester themselves. Go to the physician immediately if your child complains has a temperature or about nape pains after the pustules have already become encrusted and your child should already feel better.
Your physician will proceed as follows:
- With the typical eruption the diagnosis is relatively obviously possible. In the case of doubt specific antibodies can be proved from the blood. The medical treatment is carried out symptomatically with otherwise healthy children.
- Your physician will order you a zinc lotion, against the fever suppository or juices containing paracetamol for dabbing the skin appearances. Perhaps an antihistamine is used at a strong pruritus. If the vesicles ignite, antibiotic ointments are prescribed.
You can do the following yourself:
- All of you dab every morning and evening skin appearances the crusts which more rapidly dry up through this also ordered this one to lotions. Use cotton tips for it or unite an unused cake brush urgently. They have the solution dried. Crusts dry up more rapidly if they are treated.
- You wash your child, if at all, only briefly cool. Warm baths strengthen the pruritus.
- Lower the fever at chickenpoxes prefer with the corresponding antipyretic means not with tepid compresses around the leg.
- More frequently change the diaper of your baby fallen ill. It shouldn't lie in a wet diaper for a long time.
- Cut the fingernails for your child very briefly so that it cannot scratch itself. Every scrapers scars strengthen the pruritus and it arise! You draw bobby socks about the hands at infants, for example.
- Be able to the vesicles burn with girls rather in the vagina and the external genitalia by the urine as itch. Hip-baths help with chamomile addition here.
- Because of the fluid loss in the skin bladders you let your child drink lean meat or vegetable broth.
- The children don't certainly have to remain lying in bed. Sie können aufstehen. Attract them normally, not too warmly.
- Don't expose your child to the sun directly. It can come to meninges stimulations!
- Being able to, (if crusts are available only), you bath your child after 8 to 10 days. Leave it for 30 to 45 minutes in the bath. The crusts differ. After this you only dab the worst crusts.
- Many facilities (nursery schools, schools) require a medical certificate after the illness. Think of it!
Being able to appear in rare cases at chickenpoxes complications:
The children fallen ill should be isolated, till which over is risk of infection to the avoidance of the infection. Children have become prophylactic a vaccination recommended with a weakened, not infection capable varicella-zoster virus (before only with children with heavy basic illnesses) only since the summer 2004 for everyone. Die Impfung soll in der Regel im Alter von 11 bis 14 Monaten durchgeführt werden. It can simultaneously be given with the vein mumps rubellas' vaccination or at the earliest four weeks later.
- Bacterial infections of the chirpy or burst open vesicles most frequently appear.
- Possible rare consequences are a brain, middle ear and lung inflammation. Children and adults are, such as chronic sick persons or leukemia patients particularly prominent with a weakened immune system.
- If a pregnant woman falls ill within the first 5 months (particularly sensible phase during the 13th to 20th pregnancy week), then the chickenpoxes can lead to heavy malformations (for example eye defect, extremitieses hypoplasia) with the children.
- If the mother around the birth appointment falls ill, then it can come to heavy courses with the newborn child. Newborn childs at risk therefore immediately after the birth get zoster immunoglobulins and the virustatic Aciclovir.
- Everybody can fall ill with shingles after a gone chickenpoxes infection years or decades later. The viruses remain in the nerve cells near the spinal cord (spinal ganglions). You can be reactivated. Pains then burning are the first symptom of the shingles in the neck, shoulder or trunk area. Later, fluid filled vesicles then appear in a half-page, cingulate order for some days. The skin places concerned redden themselves, swell up and are touch-sensitive. The vesicles heal with a crust stage after one to two weeks. When scratching grains arise. The pains usually shortly after the exanthema disappear.
Children and teenagers between 9 and 17 years which didn't have the chickenpoxes yet should be vaccinated as well. A single vaccination is with children and teenagers to 13 provided the vaccination should be carried out twice with a minimum distance of 6 weeks with children after the 13th birthday years.
Pregnant women should avoid the contact with fallen ill with chicken-pox strictly. Even if they have gone through the illness in the childhood, it can come to a renewed infection and to lesions at the unborn one. A test whether sufficient antibodies are available is already in front of the pregnancy therefore recommendable. There was contact to chickenpoxes patients and the pregnant woman doesn't have any antibodies, there is the possibility of a passive immunization with immunoglobulins. This protection is only effective, though, when the immunoglobulins are given at the latest 96 hours after the infection.
These informations may be considered a substitute for a piece of medical advice in no case. The content of health-illness.com doesn't can and may be put into any case to make diagnoses or carry out self medical treatment independently.